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Weight Loss - Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment _16 tips



Weight Loss - Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Weight Loss - Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Weight loss is a decrease in body weight within 5-15% of the original values ​​in a short period. Weight Loss - Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

A person can suddenly or greatly lose weight with voluntary or forced malnutrition, pathology of the oral cavity and digestive tract, and infectious, psychiatric, and neurological diseases.

To determine the cause of weight loss, advanced blood tests, sonography, x-ray imaging, and a neurological examination are performed. 

To restore metabolism and return to normal weight, a high-calorie diet is combined with drug therapy.

Reasons for weight loss

  1. Malnutrition
  2. Dépression
  3. dental problems
  4. Damage to the pancreatobiliary system
  5. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
  6. infections
  7. Endocrine pathology
  8. Complications of pharmacotherapy
  9. Rare Causes
  10. Diagnostics
  11. Treatment
  12. Help before diagnosis
  13. Conservative therapy
  14. Prices for treatment
  15. Reasons for weight loss
  16. Malnutrition

Common causes of weight loss are voluntary restriction of food intake, increased physical activity

With such rapid weight loss, weight loss can be up to 5-10 kilograms per month, which provokes the appearance of problems with appearance and health.

The condition is more typical for young and middle-aged women who resort to strict diets in pursuit of ideal body parameters.

With such rapid weight loss, weight loss can be up to 5-10 kilograms per month, which provokes the appearance of problems with appearance and health.

Hair begins to fall out and nails exfoliate, the skin becomes flabby, and white stretch marks form Complaints of general weakness, loss of strength, apathy, and constant drowsiness are typical.

In the elderly, malnutrition and weight loss are often due to socio-economic characteristics of lifestyle - the predominance of cereals and bakery products in the diet, and insufficient consumption of nutritious meat and fish dishes.

As a result, the percentage of adipose and muscle tissue decreases, the body seems to “dry out”, and the ribs, collarbones, and pelvic bones become visible.

The skin is pale with a yellowish tint, sagging. Lack of nutrients causes problems in all organs, constant sharp weakness, and dizziness.

Depression weight loss

Depressive states manifest a complete loss of interest in ongoing events and loss of appetite. Patients sharply reduce the amount of food taken up to the refusal of food. 

Weight loss in depression reaches 10-15% of the initial body weight, weight loss is combined with severe weakness, and drowsiness - sometimes a person sleeps 14-16 hours a day and does not feel rested.

The appearance changes - the skin looks dry and pale, the hair on the head falls out, and the nails exfoliate and crumble.

In such a situation, to prevent depletion of the body, a qualified medical assistant is required.

Dental problems

Dental diseases ( caries, pulpitis), and lesions of the oral mucosa of a traumatic or infectious cause lead to sharp pains and fear of eating.

With extensive pathological processes, there is a refusal to eat and rapid weight loss. If the pains are of an infectious origin, the temperature usually rises, and general malaise is expressed.

In elderly patients, in the absence of some teeth, chewing is disturbed, and food enters the stomach insufficiently processed. 

The absorption of nutrients decreases, and as a result, a person loses weight.

What would cause a decrease in the absorption of nutrients?

  • Damage to the pancreaticobiliary system.
  • With pathologies of the liver.
  • biliary tract and pancreas (hepatitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, etc.)

A sharp weight loss is due to enzyme deficiency, due to which most of the food is not broken down and absorbed in the small intestine.

At first, the appetite does not suffer, patients eat food in the usual volumes, but lose weight. In this case, after eating, there is heaviness and pain in the abdomen. In the future, the appetite decreases, and constant nausea, and flatulence bothers.

The amount of food consumed is reduced by 2-3 times, and up to 10 kg of weight is lost. Stool disorders are typical - alternating diarrhea and constipation, periodic tenesmus.

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract 

With any inflammation or destructive pathologies of the intestinal wall, the absorption of nutrients is reduced. Weight loss develops gradually.

weight loss rarely reaches 10% 

Symptoms are associated not only with insufficient calorie intake, which causes general exhaustion and reduces performance but also with vitamin deficiencies

Avitaminosis is manifested by a deterioration in the appearance of the skin and hair, and characteristic changes in the tongue - it becomes bright red and shiny.

Common causes of Weight loss 

Common causes of Weight loss

  1. Inflammatory processes: gastroenteritis, duodenitis, colitis.
  2. Functional disorders: pylorospasm, gastroptosis, dyspepsia. 
  3. Chronic inflammatory bowel disease: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis. 
  4. Insufficiency of pancreatic enzymes.

that cause weight loss

Any infectious process is accompanied by intoxication of the body, fever, and general malaise, in which the appetite worsens and the person loses weight.

With prolonged viral or bacterial diseases, significant weight loss is observed up to exhaustion skin becomes pale with a cyanotic tint, the eyes sink, and the bones of the skeleton are well contoured.

Malnutrition leads to beriberi

Hair becomes dull and brittle, and nails exfoliate. Weight loss with increased appetite is pathognomonic for helminthiasis and protozoan invasions.

Endocrine disorders weight gain

Endocrine pathology.

Hormonal shifts and metabolic disorders are often accompanied by dramatic weight loss. With a lack or excess of certain hormones, all metabolic processes change, and catabolism prevails over synthesis.

The breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates causes rapid weight loss by reducing the volume of adipose tissue and muscle fibers.

Weight loss occurs evenly, and body proportions do not change. In addition to the general signs of exhaustion of the body, specific symptoms are noted.

The main endocrine causes of noticeable weight loss

Weight loss is more common in type 1 diabetes in children and young adults.

  • The lack of insulin provokes the activity of contrainsular hormones responsible for catabolic reactions. 
  • Despite a sharp increase in appetite, there is a rapid loss of body weight of 5-10 kg. 
  • There is also general weakness and headaches, severe thirst, and the volume of urine increases.

Hypothyroidism hyperthyroidism

An increase in the concentration of thyroxine in the blood increases the level of basal metabolism. Appetite is pathologically increased, patients are constantly hungry, but their weight is steadily decreasing.

Then the amount of food taken decreases, which is due to difficulty in swallowing due to an increase in the thyroid gland volume. The skin remains pink and moist for a long time.

Hypopituitarism treatment guidelines.

A sharp decrease or cessation of the production of pituitary hormones disrupts all types of metabolism and provokes rapid weight loss.

Pituitary causes accelerate the breakdown of fats and the destruction of proteins in muscle tissue, muscle tone, and strength decrease, and the functioning of internal organs is disrupted.

The skin is dry, thinned, and hanging in folds on the arms, abdomen, and thighs.

What are the Complications of pharmacotherapy?

Weight loss is most often associated with the use of cytostatics for the treatment of tumor pathology and severe collagenosis.

Complications from pharmacotherapy

Weight loss is most often associated with the use of cytostatics for the treatment of tumor pathology and severe collagenosis.

The drugs disrupt the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and destroy the epithelium of the entire digestive canal, which causes a loss of appetite and a sharp decrease in the absorption capacity of the small intestine.

Common causes of clinically significant weight loss are the use of antibacterial drugs that inhibit the microflora in the intestine and provoke dysbacteriosis.

Weight loss is also observed with the regular use of laxatives, antipsychotics, and tranquilizers.

Rare causes of weight gain

Rare Causes 

  1. Oncologically diseases: leukemias and lymphomas, cancer or sarcoma of any localization.
  2. Joint diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis.
  3. Degenerative neurological processes: senile dementia, dyscirculatory encephalopathy, consequences of strokes.
  4. Cardiac pathology: decompensated heart failure, myocarditis, endocarditis. 


Weight loss for no apparent reason is an indication for consultation with a general practitioner (family doctor or internist ).

The specialist conducts a comprehensive examination and excludes the most typical diseases manifested by weight loss.

An instrumental study begins with an assessment of the work of the gastrointestinal tract, with the appearance of other pathological symptoms, the nervous, and cardiovascular systems are examined, and infections are excluded.

The following have the greatest diagnostic value

The following have the greatest diagnostic value

Blood study

Standard general and biochemical blood tests reveal non-specific signs of the inflammatory process (leukocytosis, increased C-reactive protein, and sialic acids).

To exclude the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, the levels of the main digestive enzymes are specified.

The concentration of the rheumatoid factor is determined.

Hormonal profile. First, a standard blood test for glucose, free insulin levels in the blood, and C-peptide is performed to confirm the presence of type 1 diabetes.

When weight loss is combined with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, the amount of T3 and T4 in the blood is measured.

the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland and thyroliberin of the hypothalamus is assessed.

Ultrasound. To confirm or refute the gastroenterological causes of sudden weight loss

Abdominal ultrasound is prescribed, during which attention is paid to structural anomalies, intestinal wall defects, or diffuse changes in the echogenicity of parenchymal organs.

Ultrasound of the thyroid gland can rule out hyperthyroidism.

Ultrasound of the thyroid gland can rule out hyperthyroidism.

Instrumental Visualization.

If pathological signs are detected on ultrasound, endoscopy, colonoscopy, or x-ray examination of the digestive tract with oral contrast is recommended.

If a pituitary lesion is suspected, a targeted x-ray of the Turkish saddle, MRI, or CT of the brain is performed.

Additional Methods

In case of pain in the teeth, a consultation with a dentist, and an X-ray of the jaws are indicated.

If weight loss is accompanied by mental disorders, a neurological and psychiatric examination is required.

To confirm the infectious cause of weight loss, the results of a bacteriological study of feces, and serological reactions are needed.

Treatment Help before diagnosis

Diagnosis and treatment

When complaining of a large weight loss, self-medication is not allowed, since such a symptom indicates serious disorders in the body.

  1. If a person loses more than 15% of their weight, or if the weight loss is accompanied by a sharp deterioration in the condition, urgent medical attention is needed.
  2. Until the cause of the disorder is clarified, a high-calorie diet and non-specific symptomatic drugs are prescribed. 
  3. For pain in the abdomen or headaches, analgesics are indicated, in case of an increase in temperature to febrile values, NSAIDs are acceptable.

Conservative therapy

  • Medical tactics depend on the specific disease that caused weight loss, but in all situations, it is necessary to ensure sufficient intake of nutrients in the body. 
  • If the patient can eat on his own, select an individual diet with a high content of calories and vitamins.
  • Patients in serious condition are fed through a tube or parenterally infused solutions of glucose, and proteins. 
  • In addition to a high-calorie diet, drugs of isotropic and pathogenetic action are prescribed.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

They are used for a wide range of diseases - inflammatory lesions of the intestine, stomatitis, and gingivitis.

To reduce their negative impact on the gastrointestinal mucosa, selective COX-2 inhibitors are used.

Antibiotics. Antibiotic drugs are effective for bacterial infections of any localization.

A specific drug is selected after receiving the results of bacteriological culture and a test for the sensitivity of the flora. 

Antiseptics. Rinsing the mouth with solutions of chlorhexidine, and miramistin can remove pathogenic microorganisms and plaque.

This speeds up recovery from stomatitis, periodontal disease, and gum disease.

Hormones. Weight loss in thyroid disease is treated with thyroxine antagonists, which inhibit hormone synthesis.

Enzymes. In chronic pancreatitis, enzyme preparations are recommended in combination with bile acids, which improve the processes of digestion and absorption of nutrients. 


Means appoint long courses Antidepressants Weight loss in the background of depressive symptoms is the basis for the use of specific serotonin receptor agonists.

Drugs normalize the emotional sphere and increase interest in life.