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Surgical methods of weighst loss: what to expect from them?



Surgical methods of weight loss: what to expect from them?

There are many different processes that contribute to weight loss. In medical terminology, they are all divided into metabolic and bariatric. Weight loss surgery is aimed at achieving one of the following effects.

Surgical_ methods_ of_ weight_ loss_what_ to_ expect_ from_ them?

Reduce the stomach volume, as a result of which you will begin to consume less food and lose weight. Prevent the absorption of specific calories and nutrients from the food you eat.

With what weight are these operations performed?

Weight loss operations are prescribed for people with a large amount of excess weight, with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 points or more (over 45 kg overweight).

With a body mass index of 35-40 points (more than 36 kg of excess weight) and at least one of the following diagnoses:

  1. Diabetes,
  2. Metabolic syndrome,
  3. Asthma,
  4. Enuresis.
  5. or obstructive sleep apnea.
  6. (The attending physician has a complete list of concomitant diagnoses).

A body mass index of 30-35 points and the presence of diabetes or a combination of other serious diseases is called metabolic syndrome.

Types of weight loss operations

There are several types of such operations. For example, operations such as sleeve gastrectomy or gastric banding are designed to reduce the size of a person's stomach and are called restrictive. Other operations, such as gastric surgery.

Pros and cons of weight loss surgery

Before performing such an operation, the doctor will conduct a special examination to make sure that you are physically and psychologically ready for the procedure, as well as the subsequent lifestyle changes necessary to maintain the shape.

You will be told about the pros and cons of a particular procedure. Before surgery, the doctor may ask you to quit smoking, lose weight, or normalize blood sugar levels.

Preparation for surgery

The doctor will tell you what to do. During the last week before the operation, it is forbidden to use aspirin and products containing it, as well as herbal supplements.

You can only drink or take liquids for 24 to 48 hours before surgery. A general anesthetic will be used during the procedure itself.

Methods of surgical intervention

The operation is performed by an open method or laparoscopically. After laparoscopy, there are fewer scars, complications occur more often, and the recovery period passes faster.

  • When performing an operation using this method, the surgeon needs to make only a few incisions, each of which is no larger than a keyhole.
  • The operation uses a thin instrument with a small camera and a light source - a laparoscope.
  • The course of the operation is displayed on the operating room monitor.

When performing an open operation, the surgeon should make an incision in the patient's abdomen of 20 to 25.5 cm.

The volume of such a small stomach

At the beginning of this procedure, a small cyst is made on the stomach with the help of staples, which will later play the role of a new stomach in the body.

The volume of such a small stomach is about 1 serving of food. Thus, your normal stomach will not go anywhere, but food will no longer enter it.

Gastric b stomach surgery

Then the doctor divides the small intestine behind the stomach into two parts.

  1. One end of the intestine rises and joins the new small stomach, and the other end joins the middle part of the small intestine, which gives the intestine the shape of the letter Y.
  2. Your normal stomach remains in place.
  3. It will provide the pancreas with the special chemicals necessary for the digestion of food from the small pouch.

To perform a pa-pass gastric anastomosis, doctors usually use an endoscopic method.

Sleeve Gastrectomy

During this operation, the surgeon removes most of the patient's stomach (about 75%) and creates a new tube-shaped stomach from the remaining part, the sleeve gastrectomy, which is attached to the patient's small intestine.

After such an operation, the patient's stomach has a volume of only 27-28 grams. Such a small size of the stomach makes a person feel full faster.

In addition, the feeling of hunger will no longer be so strong, since most of the tissues that produce the "hunger hormone" - ghrelin - are removed. This procedure is irreversible.

Adjustable abdominal band   

During this operation, the surgeon places a silicone ring on the upper part of the stomach. The loop in a particular place narrows the stomach and divides it into two parts: a small bag with a narrow passage for the rest of the stomach.

A laparoscope can be used to perform this operation. During meals, food will stretch the walls of the stomach, signaling to the brain that it is full. The loop can be changed or removed at any time.

Vertical gastric banding (FGB or "strapping" of the stomach)

Today, this method is not used so often due to the existence of new and more advanced technologies.

  • Previously, such operations were performed as follows: in the upper part of the stomach, the surgeon cut a hole through which a stapled suture was performed on the stomach.
  • After that, the doctor wrapped a small plastic strip through the hole and fixed it, creating the lower end of the bag.
  • The food was transferred from the bag to the rest of the stomach through a small opening.

Chirurgia biliary-pancreatic bypass surgery

This procedure is not absorbable: as a result of this process, the absorption of nutrients decreases during digestion. At the beginning of the operation, the surgeon will create a small cyst on the stomach.

The volume of the bag is only 113-226 grams, so in order to feel full, you need a much smaller amount of food.

Then the surgeon performs a gastric anastomosis of the PA Most often, such an operation is performed for people with the most significant amount of excess weight since a person no longer receives nutrients from food.

After the operation

Regardless of the type of surgery you have undergone, the surgeon sutures the incisions made during surgery with surgical sutures or braces. He will stay in the hospital for a while so that doctors can make sure that he is healthy.

You will take painkillers, and the doctor will carefully monitor your condition, paying attention to blood sugar levels, dehydration of your body, and the formation of blood clots.

Nutrition after surgery

Immediately after the procedure, you should eat only liquid food. You can start eating solid food only after a few weeks. To draw up a nutrition plan, you need to work with a nutritionist familiar with the intricacies of weight loss processes.

You may not be able to eat foods that you have eaten before. It is necessary to eat smaller portions and reduce the calorie content of the daily diet. You must also ensure that your body receives the necessary nutrition. Otherwise, you will need special dietary supplements.